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The theoretical literature suggests chivalry and paternalism (see, for example, Franklin and Fearn 2008).
But punishment decisions based on statistical generalizations 29 Rehavi and Starr (2012) explore these more extensively, finding a 10 unexplained disparity. .
Both predictions are supported by the e gender gap is significantly larger in multi-defendant cases: 66 compared to 51(Table 5).StarrEstimating Gender Disparities in Federal Criminal Cases about men and women are unconstitutional.Another theory is selective sympathy : perhaps circumstances like family hardship or bad influence appear more sympathetic when it is women who are in them.If so, they may be perceived as less morally culpable or as candidates for rehabilitation.Theinteraction also offers another theory for the gender gap: it might partly reflect a black maleeffecta special harshness toward black men, who are by far the most incarcerated group inthe.S.Using decomposition methods, I show that most sentence disparity arises from decisions at the earlier stages, and use the rich data to investigate causal theories for these gender gaps.This theory only goes so far, howeverthe gender gap even among non-blacks is over 50, far larger than the race gap among men.Finde ich eine gute Studie, die diesen Komplex näher beleuchtet.Bei Drogenmengen ergäbe sich hingegen ein anderes Bild: With respect to drug quantity, the data are more informative.Formal mechanisms for recognizing womens purportedly greater cooperativeness are readily available, and yet they explain only a modest share of the disparity in drug cases and none in non-drug sex Täter Liste, king county cases.If prosecutors or judges take such factors into account in informal ways (as they seem to with family hardship, above it would be unobservable.Note that if recidivism risk perceptions are based on individual information about the offender (not based on gender then it is perfectly permissible to consider them.These data provide, at best, limited support for that theory.
Psychology experiments have found that attributions of blame and credit are often filtered through expectations that males are agentic and active and women are communal and passive (see Eagly, Wood, and Diekman 2000 for a review).
5H1.12) and in most cases for addiction (U.S.S.G.